Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

Please follow this guide for proper typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to communication +1.


  • Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.) The heading title "Introduction" is fine.
  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
  • Write your article in English. You are responsible for your own editorial or translation services. Please note the translator in your submission if you worked with one.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, or RTF).
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.
  • Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).

Document Formatting

See this sample formatting RTF for examples of the following guidelines.


  • 8½” x 11in page size
  • 1.5 inch margins (left, right, top, and bottom)
  • NO header or footer (no page numbers, name, or running title)
  • Full justification

Body Text

  • Cormorant Garamond, 12pt
  • Single Spaced
  • ½ inch indentation after paragraphs except when following a section heading
  • 6 point spacing after each paragraph

Block Quotes

  • Indent BOTH sides ½ inch

Section Headings

  • Open Sans, bold, 12pt, left justified
  • NO indentation after section heading
  • One space (return) above paragraph

Heading 3

  • Cormorant Garamond, bold, 12pt, left justified
  • NO indentation after section heading
  • One space (return) above paragraph

Heading 2

  • Open Sans, bold, italic, 12pt, left justified
  • NO indentation after section heading
  • One space (return) above paragraph

Footnotes / Citation Style

  • Chicago Footnotes and Bibliography (NOT Author Date)
  • Cormorant Garamond 10pt
  • Superscripted footnote numbering
  • Hanging indent of 0.13 in (Modified past 10 and 100 - ensure indentation is past superscripted footnote number


  • Page break after last sentence of article, before bibliography.
  • Centered title, Open Sans, Bold 12pt
  • Cormorant Garamond 12pt for Bibliography text
  • Hanging indent of 0.13 in (indent past first character of top line)
  • 6 point spacing after each reference
  • Single spaced


  • Images may be included in-text but should also be attached separately as 300dpi TIFF images.
  • Image notes should be in Cormorant Garamond 10pt.
  • Note should follow the format of “Figure X – Description” (without the quotes)

Emphasized text

  • Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Foreign terms

  • Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


  • Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.

Tables and Figures

  • To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


  • Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.
  • Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.
  • Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.
  • Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.

Additional Recommendations

  • All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.
  • Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well.
  • Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion concerning length, so we recommend between 6000 and 9000 words as a guideline (unless otherwise directed).
  • Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.
  • Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)